Definitions and Laws
Like most of the topics, it is essential to know the language of the topic, i.e., the relevant definitions and laws. The following are those that pertain to atomic structure:
The atomic number corresponds to the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of that element. It also corresponds to the number of electrons in the neutral atom.
The number of protons and neutrons in an atom of the element.
Atoms of the same element but which differ in the numbers of neutrons in their nuclei (or, have different mass numbers).
One of the elements of Group 0 of the Periodic Table
One whose atoms have an incomplete d orbital.
A measure of the amount of energy possessed by an electron when it is in an atom.
The state of an atom when all of its electrons are in their lowest available energy levels.
The state of an atom when one or more of its electrons have been promoted to higher energy levels.
Principle quantum number
A number that indicates the main energy level, or shell number, of an electron in an atom.
The region in space around the nucleus of an atom in which the electrons are most likely to be found.
Electrons occupy the lowest available energy level.
The first ionisation energy of an element is the minimum energy required to completely remove the most loosely-bound electron from an isolated atom of the element.